The Civil War was the culmination of a series of confrontations concerning the institution of slavery.
1820 | The Missouri Compromise
In the growth years following the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, Congress was compelled to establish a policy to guide the expansion of slavery into the new western territory. Missouri’s application for statehood as a slave state sparked a bitter national debate. In addition to the deeper moral issue posed by the growth of slavery, the addition of pro-slavery Missouri legislators would give the pro-slavery faction a Congressional majority.
Ultimately, Congress reached a series of agreements that became known as theMissouri Compromise. Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine was admitted as a free state, preserving the Congressional balance. A line was also drawn through the unincorporated western territories along the 36??30 parallel, dividing north and south as free and slave.
Thomas Jefferson, upon hearing of this deal, “considered it at once as the knell of the Union. It is hushed indeed for the moment. But this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence. A geographical line, coinciding with a marked principle, moral and political, once conceived and held up to the angry passions of men, will never be obliterated; and every new irritation will mark it deeper and deeper.”
1831 | Nat Turner’s Rebellion
In August of 1831, a slave named Nat Turner incited an uprising that spread through several plantations in southern Virginia. Turner and approximately seventy cohorts killed around sixty white people. The deployment of militia infantry and artillery suppressed the rebellion after two days of terror.
Fifty-five slaves, including Turner, were tried and executed for their role in the insurrection. Nearly two hundred more were lynched by frenzied mobs. Although small-scale slave uprisings were fairly common in the American South, Nat Turner’s rebellion was the bloodiest.
Virginia lawmakers reacted to the crisis by rolling back what few civil rights slaves and free black people possessed at the time. Education was prohibited and the right to assemble was severely limited.
1846 - 1850 | The Wilmot Proviso
The Wilmot Proviso was a piece of legislation proposed by David Wilmot (D-FS-R PA) at the close of the Mexican-American War. If passed, the Proviso would have outlawed slavery in territory acquired by the United States as a result of the war, which included most of the Southwest and extended all the way to California.
Wilmot spent two years fighting for his plan. He offered it as a rider on existing bills, introduced it to Congress on its own, and even tried to attach it to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. All attempts failed. Nevertheless, the intensity of the debate surrounding the Proviso prompted the first serious discussions of secession.
1850 | The Compromise of 1850
With national relations soured by the debate over the Wilmot Proviso, senators Henry Clay and Stephen Douglas managed to broker a shaky accord with the Compromise of 1850. The compromise prevented further territorial expansion of slavery while strengthening the Fugitive Slave Act, a law which compelled Northerners to seize and return escaped slaves to the South.
While the agreement succeeded in postponing outright hostilities between the North and South, it did little to address, and in some ways even reinforced, the structural disparity that divided the United States. The new Fugitive Slave Act, by forcing non-slaveholders to participate in the institution, also led to increased polarization among centrist citizens.
1852 | Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s fictional exploration of slave life was a cultural sensation. Northerners felt as if their eyes had been opened to the horrors of slavery, while Southerners protested that Stowe’s work was slanderous.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin was the second-best-selling book in America in the 19th century, second only to the Bible. Its popularity brought the issue of slavery to life for those few who remained unmoved after decades of legislative conflict and widened the division between North and South.
1854 - 1861 | Bleeding Kansas
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, narrowly passed while Congressmen brandished weapons and uttered death threats in the House chambers, overturned parts of the Missouri Compromise by allowing the settlers in the two territories to determine whether or not to permit slavery by a popular vote.
Pro- and anti-slavery agitators flocked to Kansas, hoping to shift the decision by sheer weight of numbers. The two factions struggled for five years with sporadic outbreaks of bloodshed that claimed fifty-six lives. Although both territories eventually ratified anti-slavery constitutions, the violence shocked and troubled the nation.
1857 | Dred Scott v. Sanford
Dred Scott was a Virginia slave who tried to sue for his freedom in court. The case eventually rose to the level of the Supreme Court, where the justices found that, as a slave, Dred Scott was a piece of property that had none of the legal rights or recognitions afforded to a human being.
The Dred Scott Decision threatened to entirely recast the political landscape that had thus far managed to prevent civil war. The classification of slaves as mere property made the federal government’s authority to regulate the institution much more ambiguous.
Southerners renewed their challenges to the agreed-upon territorial limitations on slavery and polarization intensified.
1859 | John Brown’s Raid
John Brown cut his teeth as a killer as an anti-slavery “Jayhawker” during Bleeding Kansas. In mid-October of 1859, the crusading abolitionist organized a small band of white allies and free blacks and raided a government arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He hoped to seize weapons and distribute them to Southern slaves in order to spark a wracking series of slave uprisings.
Although Brown captured the arsenal, he was quickly surrounded and forced to surrender by soldiers under the command of Colonel Robert E. Lee. He was tried for treason and, upon his execution, became a martyr for the abolitionist cause. Southerners, on the other hand, began to militarize in preparation for future raids.
1860 | Abraham Lincoln’s Election
Abraham Lincoln was elected by a considerable margin in 1860 despite not being included on many Southern ballots. As a Republican, his party’s anti-slavery outlook struck fear into many Southerners.
On December 20, 1860, a little over a month after the polls closed, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Six more states followed by the spring of 1861.
1861 | The Battle of Fort Sumter
With secession, several federal forts, including Fort Sumter in South Carolina, suddenly became outposts in a foreign land. Abraham Lincoln made the decision to send fresh supplies to the beleaguered garrisons.
On April 12, 1861, Confederate warships turned back the supply convoy to Fort Sumter and opened a 34-hour bombardment on the stronghold. The garrison surrendered on April 14.
The Civil War was now underway. On April 15, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to join the Northern army. Unwilling to contribute troops, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee dissolved their ties to the federal government.
Compromise of 1850
The Compromise of 1850 consists of five laws passed in September of 1850 that dealt with the issue of slavery. In 1849 California requested permission to enter the Union as a free state, potentially upsetting the balance between the free and slave states in the U.S. Senate. Senator Henry Clay introduced a series of resolutions on January 29, 1850, in an attempt to seek a compromise and avert a crisis between North and South. As part of the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act was amended and the slave trade in Washington, D.C., was abolished. Furthermore, California entered the Union as a free state and a territorial government was created in Utah. In addition, an act was passed settling a boundary dispute between Texas and New Mexico that also established a territorial government in New Mexico.
Library of Congress Web Site | External Web Sites | Selected Bibliography
A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875
This collection contains congressional publications from 1774 to 1875, including debates, bills, laws, and journals.
- January 29, 1850 - The Compromise of 1850 was introduced by Senator Henry Clay in a series of resolutions.
- February 5 and 6, 1850 - Senator Henry Clay defended his compromise proposals in a speech.
- March 4, 1850 - Senator John Calhoun's speech against the Compromise of 1850 was delivered. Calhoun was too weak to give the speech so it was read by Senator James Murray Mason of Virginia.
- March 7, 1850 - Senator Daniel Webster delivered his speech in favor of the Compromise of 1850 ("Seventh of March" speech).
Search this collection in the 31st Congress, 1st Session, to find additional Congressional documents on the Compromise of 1850.
Words and Deeds in American History: Selected Documents Celebrating the Manuscript Division's First 100 Years
In honor of the Manuscript Division's centennial, its staff has selected for online display approximately ninety representative documents spanning from the fifteenth century to the mid-twentieth century.
Jump Back in Time: John C. Calhoun Was Born, March 18, 1782.
Jump Back in Time: The Day Henry Clay Died, June 29, 1852.
This site allows you to search and view millions of historic American newspaper pages from 1789 to 1924. Search this collection to find newspaper articles about the Compromise of 1850.
A selection of articles related to the Compromise of 1850 includes:
- "Mr. Clay's Resolutions," The North-Carolina Standard. (Raleigh, N.C.), February 6, 1850.
- "Mr. Calhoun's Speech," The North-Carolina Standard. (Raleigh, N.C.), March 13, 1850.
- "Mr. Webster," The Daily Crescent. (New Orleans, La.), March 16, 1850.
- "The Fugitive Slave Law," Anti-Slavery Bugle. (New-Lisbon, Ohio), October 12, 1850.
American Treasures of the Library of Congress - Compromise of 1850
Exhibit of documents from Senators John C. Calhoun and Daniel Webster on the Compromise of 1850.
March 7, 1850
Senator Daniel Webster delivered his famous "Seventh of March" speech urging sectional compromise on the issue of slavery.
Clay's Last Compromise, United States Senate
The Compromise of 1850, ushistory.org
Daniel Webster: The Constitution & the Union, United States Senate
Our Documents, Compromise of 1850, National Archives and Records Administration
Speech Costs Senator His Seat (Daniel Webster), United States Senate
Struggles over Slavery: The Compromise of 1850, National Archives and Records Administration
Thomas Hart Benton: Against the Compromise of 1850, United States Senate
Bordewich, Fergus M. America's Great Debate: Henry Clay, Stephen A. Douglas, and the Compromise That Preserved the Union. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2012. [Catalog Record]
Hamilton, Holman. Prologue to Conflict, the Crisis and Compromise of 1850. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1964. [Catalog Record]
Holt, Michael F. The Political Crisis of the 1850s. New York: Norton, 1983. [Catalog Record]
Remini, Robert Vincent. At the Edge of the Precipice: Henry Clay and the Compromise That Saved the Union. New York: Basic Books, 2010. [Catalog Record]
Stegmaier, Mark Joseph. Texas, New Mexico, and the Compromise of 1850: Boundary Dispute & Sectional Crisis. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1996. [Catalog Record]
Waugh, John C. On the Brink of Civil War: The Compromise of 1850 and How it Changed the Course of American History. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 2003. [Catalog Record]